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History of web Application
Earlier in client- server computing, each application had its own client program and it worked as a user interface and need to be installed on each user's personal computer. Most web applications use HTML/XHTML that is mostly supported by all the browsers and web pages are displayed to the client as static documents. A web page can merely displays static content and it also lets the user navigate through the content, but a web application provides a more interactive experience.
Any computer running Servlets or JSP needs to have a container. A container is nothing but a piece of software responsible for loading, executing and unloading the Servlets and JSP. While servlets can be used to extend the functionality of any Java- enabled server. They are mostly used to extend web servers, and are efficient replacement for CGI scripts. CGI was one of the earliest and most prominent server side dynamic content solutions, so before going forward it is very important to know the difference between CGI and the Servlets
Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
The Common Gateway Interface, which is normally referred as CGI, was one of the practical techniques developed for creating dynamic content. By using the CGI, a web server passes requests to an external program and after executing the program the content is sent to the client as the output.
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Figure 1
In CGI when a server receives a request it creates a new process to run the CGI program, so creating a process for each request requires significant server resources and time, which limits the number of requests that can be processed concurrently. CGI applications are platform dependent.
Web Server Introduction
A web server is the combination of computer and the program installed on it. Web server interacts with the client through a web browser. It delivers the web pages to the client and to an application by using the web browser and he HTTP protocols respectively. We can also define the web server as the package of large number of programs installed on a computer connected to Internet or intranet for downloading the requested files using File Transfer Protocol, serving e-mail and building and publishing web pages. A web server works on a client server model. A computer connected to the Internet or intranet must have a server program. While talking about Java language then a web server is a server that is used to support the web component like the Servlet and JSP. Note that the web server does not support to EJB (business logic component) component.
A computer connected to the Internet for providing the services to a small company or a departmental store may contain the HTTP server (to access and store the web pages and files), SMTP server (to support mail services), FTP server (for files downloading) and NNTP server (for newsgroup). The computer containing all the above servers is called the web server. Internet service providers and large companies may have all the servers like HTTP server, SMTP server, FTP server and many more on separate machines. In case of Java, a web server can be defined as the server that only supports to the web component like servlet and jsp. Notice that it does not support to the business component like EJB.
Struts is a Frameworks which is an implementation of MVC-2 at server side. Struts have many advantages over the standard servlet and JSP API alone.
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Struts1.3 has following advantages are:
1. Centralized:- Struts1.3 provides centralized controller and centralized xml file to configure all actions, plug-in ,form bean etc. and also provides XML or properties file in which we can write valuable information rather than hard-code into our java code file. Struts2 also provides centralized controller.
A network security developer has to focus only security and traffics so it is easy to handle it as in Struts1.3 there is only one serevlet controller.
2. Maintaining and development:- As in struts1.3, There is clear separation of model, view and controllers so its maintaining cost is low and at development time GUI . Developer have focus only GUI ,business logic developer have focus on writing business logics and controller developer have focus on only networks securities traffics etc. Our developer can work on different mode, views and controllers .So it will take less time. We can assign different task on the behalf of the skill set so development cost can be optimized.
There is clear separations between presentation and transaction layers so itís allow us change the look and feel of applications without recompiles models.
3. ActionForm Beans:- When we are using JSP to send form data we have use property="*" with jsp:set Property .This will automatically populate data a JavaBean component based on incoming request parameters. Unfortunately there is no any standard API thought which we can do this into serevlets. Apache Struts extends this capability of java code and adds in several useful utilities, all of which serve to greatly simplify the processing of request parameters.
4. Struts-Tags Library:- Apache Struts provides a set of Bean tags (bean:write, in particular) that let us easily output the properties of JavaBeans components. Apache Struts provides a set of HTML Tags to create HTML forms that are associated with JavaBeans components. This bean/form association serves two useful purposes: It lets you get initial form-field values from Java objects. It lets you redisplay forms with some or all previously entered values intact.
5. Form Field Validation:- Apache Struts provides validate frameworks to validate data like formats, minimum length, maximum lengths. Also maintains the previous stats of from data.This validation can be performed on the server (in Java), or both on the server and on the client (in JavaScript).
6. Fast Deployment: - In struts 1.3, development time can be significantly reduced.
7. Advantage Utilities:-Struts1.3 provides lots of utilities derived from Apache commons to make our life easier like readymade Form Beans for request parameters, Validation controls and Custom tags.

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