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NETWORKING

Introduction
A network is a set of devices (often referred to as nodes) connected by communication links. A node can be a computer, printer, or any other device capable of sending and /or receiving data generated by other nodes on the network.
Physical Structures of the Network:
Before discussing networks, we need to define some network attributes.
Type of Connection:
There are two possible types of connections: point-to-point and multipoint.
Point-to-Point:
A point-to-point connection provides a dedicated link between two devices. The entire capacity of the link is reserved for transmission between those two devices.
Multipoint: A multipoint (also called multi-drop) connection is one in which more than two specific devices share a single link.
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Physical Topology of the Network:
1. Mesh Topology.
2. Star Topology.
3. Bus Topology.
4. Ring Topology.
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Mesh Topology:
In a mesh topology, every device has a dedicated point-to-point link to every other device. The term dedicated means that the link carries traffic only between the two devices it connects.
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Star Topology:
In a star topology, each device has a dedicated point-to-point link only to a central controller, usually called a hub. The devices are not directly linked to one another.

Bus Topology:
The preceding examples all describe point-to-point connections. A bus topology, on the other hand, is multipoint. One long cable acts as a backbone to link all the devices in a network.
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Ring Topology:
In a ring topology, each device has a dedicated point-to-point connection with only the two devices on either side of it. A signal is passed along the ring in one direction, from device to device, until it reaches its destination. Each device in the ring incorporates a repeater. When a device receives a signal intended for another device, its repeater regenerates the bits and passes them along
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Network Models:
Categories of Networks:

1. LAN
2. WAN
3. MAN
THE OSI MODEL
The OSI model is a layered framework for the design of network systems that allows communication between all types of computer systems. It consists of seven separate but related layers, each of which defines a part of the process of moving information across a network.
LAYERS IN THE OSI MODEL
Physical Layer
The physical layer coordinates the functions required to carry a bit stream over a physical medium. It deals with the mechanical and electrical specifications of the interface and transmission medium. It also defines the procedures and functions that physical devices and interfaces have to perform for transmission to Occur. Figure shows the position of the physical layer with respect to the transmission medium and the data link layer.
Data Link Layer
The data link layer transforms the physical layer, a raw transmission facility, to a reliable link. It makes the physical layer appear error-free to the upper layer (network layer). Figure shows the relationship of the data link layer to the network and physical layers.
Network Layer
The network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of a packet, possibly across multiple networks (links). Whereas the data link layer oversees the delivery of the packet between two systems on the same network (links), the network layer ensures that each packet gets from its point of origin to its final destination. If two systems are connected to the same link, there is usually no need for a network layer. However, if the two systems are attached to different networks (links) with connecting devices between the networks (links), there is often a need for the network layer to accomplish Source-to-destination delivery.
Transport Layer
The transport layer is responsible for process-to-process delivery of the entire message. A process is an application program running on a host. Whereas the network layer oversees source-to-destination delivery of individual packets, it does not recognize any relationship between those packets. It treats each one independently, as though each piece belonged to a separate message, whether or not it does. The transport layer, on the other hand, ensures that the whole message arrives intact and in order, overseeing both error control and flow control at the source-to-destination level.
Session Layer
The services provided by the first three layers (physical, data link, and network) are not sufficient for some processes. The session layer is the network dialog controller. It establishes, maintains, and synchronizes the interaction among communicating systems.
Application Layer
The application layer enables the user, whether human or software, to access the network . It provides user interfaces and support for services such as electronic mail, remote file access and transfer, shared database management, and other types of distributed information services.
Summary of Layers
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