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WEB SERVICES

Introduction
The W3C defines a "Web service" as "a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network". It has an interface described in a machine-process able format (specifically Web Services Description Language, known by the acronym WSDL). Other systems interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed by its description using SOAP messages, typically conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization in conjunction with other Web-related standards.
Definition for web service
Software components that can be published, located, and run over the Internet using Extensible Markup Language (XML)
• Software components that can be run over the Internet using XML
Reasons to use Web services
• Applications can be built that are platform-independent, distributed, and secure
• Web services will become the common architecture for system and application integration
• Based on open industry standards
• Companies and government agencies will be able to easily communicate with customers and external partners
• Loosely-coupled and flexible systems are more useful than hard-wired and monolithic ones:
Example – World Wide Web
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)
Technologies in web service
• XML, UDDI, WSDL, and SOAP

Name

Abbreviation

Use

Extensible Markup Language

XML

Language

Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration

UDDI

Discovery

Web Services Description Language

WSDL

Description

Simple Object Access Protocol

SOAP

Request and receive messages


Service-oriented architecture
Web services can also be used to implement an architecture according to service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts, where the basic unit of communication is a message, rather than an operation. This is often referred to as "message-oriented" services.
SOA Web services are supported by most major software vendors and industry analysts. Unlike RPC Web services, loose coupling is more likely, because the focus is on the "contract" that WSDL provides, rather than the underlying implementation details.
Middleware analysts use enterprise service buses (ESBs) that combine message-oriented processing and Web services to create an event-driven SOA. One example of an open-source ESB is WSO2 ESB, Mule and Open.
Web Services technology
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3 major Web services toolkits being used widely
• .NET Web services: Developed by Microsoft and is an integral part of the complete .NET framework. Integrated and easy to use with Visual Studio .NET. Services are hosted on IIS web servers.
• Java Web services: Sun’s Web service implementation for the Java community. Comes bundled in a complete Java Web services Development Pack (JWSDP Ver 1.3) including Tomcat web server.
• Apache Axis: Initially developed by IBM and donated to the Apache group. One of the earliest and stable Web service implementation. Runs on Apache Web servers.
Web Services Architecture

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